Outline effect of pollution in the cities

Environmental Protection Agency in the late s Krupnick and Morgenstern Some pesticides are applied directly on soil to kill pests in the soil or on the ground.

Outline effect of pollution in the cities

This burden of disease occurs primarily in developing countries, with China and India contributing the most to the global burden. Early loss of life in elderly people, who would have died soon regardless of the air pollution, has been labeled mortality displacement, because it contributes little to the overall burden of disease McMichael and others Strategies for effective air and water resource management should include research on the potential side effects of an intervention, such as in Bangladesh, where tube wells drilled to supply water turned out to be contaminated with arsenic see box Misra examined the costs and benefits of water pollution abatement for a cluster of small-scale industries in Gujarat, India. Ozone at this level creates health concerns, unlike ozone in the upper atmosphere, which occurs naturally and protects life by filtering out ultraviolet radiation from the sun. The study concluded that cities with higher levels of air pollution had higher levels of crime. One major criticism was of the use of the value of statistical life for each death potentially avoided by the reduced air pollution. Gaseous pollutants include sulfur compounds such as SO2 and sulfur trioxide; carbon monoxide; nitrogen compounds such as nitric oxide, NO2, and ammonia; organic compounds such as hydrocarbons; volatile organic compounds; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogen derivatives such as aldehydes; and odorous substances. You will learn about in climate change in Study Sessions 9, 10 and There is a fourth type of pollution that is common in urban communities. Interventions The variety of hazardous pollutants that can occur in air or water also leads to many different interventions.

The organic wastes from domestic sources include human excreta and also food waste and other kitchen waste such as cooking oil residues. Various mitigation measures for reducing PM10 and health impacts were examined in terms of reductions in tons of PM10 emitted, cost of implementation, time frame for implementation, and health benefits and their associated cost savings.

effect of pollution essay

Research and Development Agenda Even though a good deal of information is available about the health risks of common air and water pollutants, further research is needed to guide regulations and interventions.

The study used a variety of costing methods to reach the range of likely present values presented in table Pollutants also come in solid form. The recalculated figure is still well above the fifth percentile estimate of benefits and does not undermine the positive cost-benefit ratio reported.

Effects of air pollution in points

The main source of the air pollution is PM 2. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. During the s and early s, when the government made many of the major decisions about intensified pollution control interventions, Japan's gross domestic product GDP per capita was growing at an annual rate of about 10 percent, similar to that of the rapidly industrializing countries in the early 21st century. International and local experts initiated waste more Domestic sources are also responsible for gaseous pollutants in the form of smoke and carbon dioxide from domestic fires. Soil pollution is linked to groundwater pollution. Pollutants also come in solid form. Polluted air increases anxiety, which can in turn lead to a rise in criminal or unethical behaviour. Liquid wastes containing toxic chemicals or pathogenic micro-organisms on the surface of the land can seep slowly into the soil and may percolate down to contaminate groundwater, which can affect people using springs or wells in the area.

Emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react with sunlight to eventually form another secondary pollutant, ozone, at ground level. Noise makes it difficult to have a conversation and also irritates and disturbs us and in the long term can damage our hearing.

Effects of pollution on environment

Air pollution can be caused by gases or solid particulates. This practice can create spray drift when the wind carries the materials to nearby waterways. Total daily exposure is determined by people's time and activity patterns, and it combines indoor and outdoor exposures. In practice, rivers frequently receive polluting discharges from many different sources all at the same time. For developing countries, specific data on this topic are found primarily in the so-called gray literature: government reports, consultant reports, or reports by the international banks. One study of air pollution and crime in 9, US cities suggests that air pollution increases crime. Can you think of examples of point and non-point source pollution from earlier in this study session? Shih, and J.

It eliminates vehicle-related lead pollution and permits the use of catalytic converters, which reduce emissions of other pollutants. Nitrogen dioxide NO2 : Nitrogen Dioxide is one of a group of highly reactive gases known as oxides of nitrogen or nitrogen oxides NOx.

effects of pollution on humans animals plants and the environment
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New paper outlines ways of reducing impacts of pollution, climate change, noise and crime