Organizational change and development

research article on organizational change and development pdf

Employees help members of their work group and employees in other groups to improve job performance and raise productivity for the organization as a whole.

Figure 1 summarizes the steps and processes involved in planned change through action research. First, the staff is told of the new system and is trained to use it.

People are afraid of the unknown.

How would you explain organizational change and development in hrm

There are interventions that focus on task issues what people do , and those that focus on process issues how people go about doing it. They may be introduced by a change agent as part of an improvement program, or they may be used by the client following a program to check on the state of the organization's health, or to effect necessary changes in its own behavior. Sponsoring organization[ edit ] The initiative for OD programs often comes from an organization that has a problem or anticipates facing a problem. Supervisors play a critical role in effectively delegating tasks to employees and providing ongoing support in the form of feedback, coaching and training. Organizations, subunits of organizations, and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. As indicated in the diagram, the planning stage is a period of unfreezing, or problem awareness. People are afraid of the unknown.

Change efforts can encounter a wide variety of obstacles, for example, strong resistance from members of the organization or unexpected changes in the environment outside the organization. Research indicates that cynicism is increasing in organizations in regard to change efforts.

This problem can occur if the question "Is this realistic?

Organizational change and development question paper pdf

Power is important among members of the organization when striving for the resources and influence necessary to successfully carry out their jobs. Change management usually involves a three-step process based on Kurt Lewin's model of unfreezing, changing and refreezing. Also, drawings often prompt active participation in the activity, as everyone is required to draw a picture and then discuss its meaning.. In consultations, this phase usually is called the implementation phase. Essential to organization development and effectiveness is the scientific method — inquiry, a rigorous search for causes, experimental testing of hypotheses, and review of results. It also involves more effective decision processes, more appropriate leadership styles , improved skill in dealing with destructive conflict, as well as developing improved levels of trust and cooperation among organizational members. This is consistent with the systems concept of feedback as a regulatory and corrective mechanism. People are inherently cynical about change.

Major adjustments and reevaluations would return the OD project to the first, or planning, stage for basic changes in the program. Organizational development can include strategic planning, leadership development, professional development, coaching and even work-life balance.

There may be conflicting goals in the organizational change effort.

Organisational change development and transformation pdf

They communicate their fear through direct means, such as complaining about the plans for change. Leaders must listen to the employees — people need to feel that the approach to change will include their strong input and ongoing involvement. As indicated in the diagram, the planning stage is a period of unfreezing, or problem awareness. The ways that consultants and organizations go through this phase can vary widely, ranging from clearly delineated phases and steps to a continual mutual engagement with the client from which the project activities continue to unfold. They want to feel respected enough by their leaders to be involved and to work toward a vision that is realistic, yet promising and rewarding in the long run. As shown in Figure 1, feedback at this stage would move via Feedback Loop A and would have the effect of altering previous planning to bring the learning activities of the client system into better alignment with change objectives. However, power exists in all human interactions and is not always bad. Research indicates that cynicism is increasing in organizations in regard to change efforts. Managing Transition This phase occurs when the organization works to make the actual transition from the current state to the desired future state or vision. Leaders must widely communicate the need for the change and how the change can be accomplished successfully. At this point in a consulting project, it may be wise for the consultant to ensure he or she has ongoing support themselves for example, from other consultants who can provide ongoing objectivity, affirmation and other forms of support. Some of the things which will help him are: A real need in the client system to change Genuine support from management Setting a personal example: listening, supporting behavior A sound background in the behavioral sciences A working knowledge of systems theory A belief in man as a rational, self-educating being fully capable of learning better ways to do things.

There appears to be no set rules or single, authoritative definitions for either term.

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Research in Organizational Change and Development