Lung cancer research paper pdf

Introduction Lung cancer, a highly invasive, rapidly metastasizing and prevalent cancer, is the top killer cancer in both men and women in the United States of America USA. After removing duplicates, reviewing articles for accuracy, and supplementing the literature search with additional articles identified as relevant by the Task Force, a item bibliography was finalized Additional file 3.

Lung cancer research paper pdf

Methods: Data relating to symptoms were collected from patients upon referral with symptoms suspicious of lung cancer in two English regions; we also examined primary care and hospital records for diagnostic routes and diagnoses. A post-meeting questionnaire May and follow-up survey questions February were circulated to the consensus panel to ensure that the final guideline recommendations reflected the most recent clinical trial data, drug approvals, and clinical experience. However, variability in assay systems, tissue preparation and processing, and cutoff values have complicated the interpretation and consensus use of these assays [ 18 , 19 , 20 ]. Additionally, durvalumab following chemoradiation has been approved for use in patients with locally advanced disease. Tumors in the top of the lung , known as Pancoast tumors , may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system , resulting in Horner's syndrome dropping of the eyelid and a small pupil on that side , as well as damage to the brachial plexus. Late-stage disease at diagnosis is associated with socioeconomic deprivation, especially among older men, and those with 20 or more pack-years of smoking, even if they stopped smoking within the previous 10 years Lyratzopoulos et al, However, there are several treatment options available that can prolong survival in patients with metastatic disease. Data collection Our approaches to data collection, analysis and reporting were based on the recommendations of the Aarhus statement for the conduct of cancer diagnostic studies Weller et al, The literature was graded according to a previously established rating system in which Level A represents strong evidence-based data derived from prospective, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses; Level B represents moderately supported data derived from uncontrolled, prospective clinical trials; and Level C represents weak supporting data derived from reviews and case reports [ 26 ]. Primary care data GPs completed a proforma from their clinical records, providing dates of the first presentation with any symptom listed in the SYMPTOM questionnaire within the previous 2 years, plus its duration before presentation, if recorded. The remaining sections contained items about other symptoms, and demographic and clinical details.

A family history of cancer was also recorded present vs absent. Main Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Abstract Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women in the U.

Additionally, the Task Force considered durvalumab following chemoradiation in patients with locally, advanced disease.

Lung cancer pdf 2018

This guidance will be updated following relevant advances in the field. Data collection Our approaches to data collection, analysis and reporting were based on the recommendations of the Aarhus statement for the conduct of cancer diagnostic studies Weller et al, S-based clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent developments in lung cancer biology and its therapeutic strategies, and discuss the latest treatment advances including therapies currently under clinical investigation. However, advances in sequencing technology and increased understanding of tumor cell biology have led to the development of targeted therapies for NSCLC [ 5 , 6 , 7 ], including small molecule inhibitors for specific oncogenic driver alterations [ 8 , 9 ]. The search, which was limited to clinical trials, meta-analyses, practice guidelines in humans, randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and clinical studies, includes articles published between January 1, and February 12, Additionally, the Task Force considered durvalumab following chemoradiation in patients with locally, advanced disease. Logistic regression or Cox regression analyses were performed as appropriate. Lung cancer patients are often symptomatic for many months before presentation, irrespective of their disease stage at diagnosis Corner et al, However, variability in assay systems, tissue preparation and processing, and cutoff values have complicated the interpretation and consensus use of these assays [ 18 , 19 , 20 ]. Until recently, chemotherapy — characterized by some benefit but only rare durable responses — was the only treatment option for patients with NSCLC whose tumors lacked targetable mutations.

This workup should include determination of tumor histological subtype, and molecular analysis to identify targetable driver mutations. Logistic regression or Cox regression analyses were performed as appropriate.

lung cancer journal articles pdf

However, other factors such as radon gas, asbestos, air pollution exposures, and chronic infections can contribute to lung carcinogenesis. Patients were only approached on a single occasion; no follow-up letters were sent.

The literature was graded according to a previously established rating system in which Level A represents strong evidence-based data derived from prospective, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses; Level B represents moderately supported data derived from uncontrolled, prospective clinical trials; and Level C represents weak supporting data derived from reviews and case reports [ 26 ].

Hospital data Study researchers extracted data from hospital medical records, including date of referral and route urgent, routine, emergency, other ; date of first consultation; investigations and findings; and diagnosis and date histological, clinical, MDT meetings.

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Lung cancer: biology and treatment options