Cicero and augustine and concepts of just war politics essay
Aquinas on war
Elements There are two parts to Just War theory, both with Latin names: Jus ad bellum: the conditions under which the use of military force is justified. Nagel, Thomas Just and Unjust Wars. Also simultaneously, the state constitutes a sort of remedy for the effects of the Fall, in that it serves to maintain such modicum of peace and order as it is possible for fallen man to enjoy in the present world. Jus post bellum governs the justice of war termination and peace agreements, as well as the prosecution of war criminals, and publicly labeled terrorists. That goal may be tempered with attaining assurances that no further invasion will take place, but for B to invade and annex regions of A is nominally a disproportionate response, unless controversially that is the only method for securing guarantees of no future reprisals. The principle of discrimination concerns who are legitimate targets in war, whilst the principle of proportionality concerns how much force is morally appropriate. The just war theorist is keen to remind warriors and politicians alike that the principles of justice following war should be universalizable and morally ordered and that victory should not provide a license for imposing unduly harsh or punitive measures or that state or commercial interests should not dictate the form of the new peace. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy refers to Carl von Clausewitz is "the only so-called philosopher of war", implying that he is the only major philosophical writer who develops a philosophical system focusing exclusively on war. Proponents of realism believe that moral concepts should never prescribe, nor circumscribe, a state's behaviour. Kretzmann, A. Parts of the Bible hint at ethical behavior in war and concepts of just cause, typically announcing the justice of war by divine intervention; the Greeks may have paid lip service to the gods, but, as with the Romans, practical and political issues tended to overwhelm any fledgling legal conventions: that is, interests of state or Realpolitik the theory known as political realism would take precedence in declaring and waging war. Citizens are always duty bound to obey God; and when the imperatives of obedience to God and obedience to civil authority conflict, citizens must choose to obey God and willingly accept the punishment of disobedience. Punitive measures are to be limited to those directly responsible for the conflict. Is it right that an army should demand unconditional surrender, for instance, when such a policy may entail a protracted war for no incentive is given to the other side to surrender; on the other hand, unconditional surrender implies a derogatory view of the enemy as one not to be respected either in or after war.
It is only when the enemy is seen to be a people, sharing a moral identity with whom one will do business in the following peace, that tacit or explicit rules are formed for how wars should be fought and who they should involve and what kind of relations should apply in the aftermath of war.
On the one hand, if the only method to secure a general peace some thing usually held to be good in itself is to annex a belligerent neighbor's territory, political aggrandizement becomes intimately connected with the proper intention of maintaining the peace for all or the majority.
Battenhouse, Roy W.
As a Christian cleric, he takes it as his task to defend his flock against the unremitting assault by heresies spawned in an era uninformed by the immediate, divine revelations which had characterized the apostolic age. Wilfrid Laurier Press.
Arguments for just war
Of course, if promises of an amnesty or fair treatment of prisoners is reneged on by the victor, then all trust for future arrangements is lost and the consequences imply embedding hatreds and mistrust for generations. Minear, Richard Introduction Historically, the just war tradition--a set of mutually agreed rules of combat—may be said to commonly evolve between two culturally similar enemies. It was not until c. Winston Churchill offered the British nation some of the finest of war's rhetoric when it was threatened with defeat and invasion by Nazi Germany in This idea has largely been added to help decide what to do if there are prisoners that have been taken during battle. Ethical categories[ edit ] Another possible system for categorizing different schools of thought on war can be found in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy see external links, belowbased on ethics. Given just cause and right intention, the just war theory asserts that there must be a reasonable probability of success. Differing conceptions of justice produce divergent interpretations of what constitutes a justified war; but war is, by its nature, often a clash between societies with idiosyncratic interpretations of justice, each favouring its own interpretation and its own cause.
Just and Unjust Wars. If the people are defeated but their cause remains just, should they then continue the fight to rid their country of all the vestiges of occupation?
Just war theory timeline
His approach explains how a morally upright citizen of a relatively just state could be justified in pursuing warfare, in prosecuting war, and ultimately, although unhappily, in taking human life. Yet the prevalence of wars approved by God in the Old Testament indicated that war could indeed be used as a tool of justice. For B to invade and annex A and then to continue to invade neutral neighboring nations on the grounds that their territory would provide a useful defense against other threats and a putative imbalance of power is even more unsustainable. Accordingly, they are complemented by other considerations that are not always explicitly taken up in the traditional exposition of jus In bello, this is especially true in the case of the issue of responsibility. It was influential on later thought about war. Lust for dominion, hatred, cruelty: these were the dispositions that made war unjust. It'll be necessary to look at a number of critical perspectives in order to present a rounded argument so the use of a thorough bibliography will be applied. Thucydides It is a useful division but one that does not necessarily sever all ties between the two great principles of warfare: the justice of a cause remains a powerful moral guide by which warfare is to be judged, for what does it matter, it can be asked, if a nation wages a war of aggression but does so cleanly? The Early Church The historicity of an uncompromisingly pacifist early Church was challenged by Adolf Harnack as long ago as , and a revisionist approach has gained further support since the s.
See also A. Every true American would rather see this land face war than see her flag lowered in dishonor The final guide of jus ad bellum is that the desired end should be proportional to the means used. Now we cannot achieve this in our present life, for all our wishing.
Is it right that an army should demand unconditional surrender, for instance, when such a policy may entail a protracted war for no incentive is given to the other side to surrender; on the other hand, unconditional surrender implies a derogatory view of the enemy as one not to be respected either in or after war.
Another subcategory of the cataclysmic school of thought is the ethnocentric cataclysmic, in which this view is focused specifically on the plight of a specific ethnicity or nationfor example the view in Judaism of war as a punishment from God on the Israelites in certain books of the Tenakh Old Testament.
Just war theory ww2
Given just cause and right intention, the just war theory asserts that there must be a reasonable probability of success. Moseley, Alexander and Richard Norman, eds. Introduction Historically, the just war tradition--a set of mutually agreed rules of combat—may be said to commonly evolve between two culturally similar enemies. The underlying issues that ethical analysis must deal with involve the logical nature of an individual's complicity and the aiding and abetting the war machine, with greater weight being imposed on those logically closer than those logically further from the war machine in their work. To be able to fully understand the idea of just war, it's important to look at the quarrels of both men and compare them to notice how the notion advanced as times transformed. Article 4 of the Third Geneva Convention also makes clear that the treatment of prisoners of war is binding on both parties even when captured soldiers have an "allegiance to a government or an authority not recognized by the Detaining Power". In chivalrous times, the Christian crusader could seek priestly absolution for atrocities committed in war, a stance supported by Augustine for example; today, the law courts are seemingly less forgiving: a violation of the conventions assumes that the soldier is responsible and accountable and should be charged for a crime.
Although St. Arguably the immediate effect of the Peace of God was not the enhanced protection of non-combatants, but the identification of who could legitimately resort to violence and for what purposes.
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